Ancient Roman Military

The Ancient Roman Military was an epitome of prowess during the ancient times. The military had grown from mere soldier farmers to an elite army. The Ancient Roman Military had achieved great success and had grown in size since its founding in 753BC until its downfall in 486AD. During this period, the army was regarded as a machine that won a majority of its perennial battles. This paper presents a brief history of the Ancient Roman Military and how it was able to defeat its opponents before its fall.

Many events unfolded since the creation of the Roman Army until its collapse. The Ancient Roman Military started as a citizen army called the Greek phalanx that was divided into classes based on wealth. The legionnaires financially supported themselves but this later changed during the reign of Marius, who transformed the army into a professional one. The Roman army was founded from the different social classes. The Roman Army was composed of soldiers from various spheres of the world: Africa, Spain, France, the Middle East, Germany and the Balkans. The diversity in its composition helped to allot different responsibilities and ranks to the different types of people. There were the non-combatants, otherwise regarded as a backstage crew. The backstage crew either worked as Calones or Mercatores or Muliones or Fabri or Exploratores and Speculatores. The Legionnaires fought on the battlefields against their rivals. The Standard Bearers held Rome’s symbol of unity and led the legion to battle and victory.   

The Roman armory was composed of an armor, a helmet, a rectangular shield, a gladius and pilum. The armor was made of leather and iron and the shield was made of wood and leather. Together with the metal helmet on the head, these formed a protective cover that enabled the legionnaires to stay safe on the battle ground. During these pre-mechanized times, the main weapons for the legion were a gladius, which was a short sword, a pilum or long spear that had a thin and bendy shaft. The characteristics of the pilum made it possible for it to pierce and stick on the enemy’s shield. This shield was then thrown away because it became an obstacle, thereby making it easy for the Roman Army to outstrip its opponents.

In conclusion, it is evident that the victories of the Ancient Roman Military were hard-earned. However, the division of ancient Rome led to the fall of the Roman Military, which had declined politically and economically. The consistent invasion by the barbarians and loss of superiority of the Roman Military also led to its fall.